Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán and Catamarca. It also borders Jujuy. To the north it borders Bolivia and Paraguay and to the west lies Chile.
* 1 History
* 2 Geography and climate
* 3 Economy
* 4 Tourism
Before the arrival of the Spanish conquest, numerous aborigines currently referred as Diaguitas and Calchaquíes lived in the valleys of the Salta Province. These included many different tribes, such as the Quilmes and Humahuacas, all of which shared the Cacán language. The Atacamas in the Puna, and the Wichís (Matacos) near the Chaco Province.
The first conquistador to adventure to the area was Diego de Almagro in 1535, followed by Diego de Rojas. In 1582 San Felipe de Lerma was founded by Hernando de Lerma after orders of viceroy Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa, but the name of he city was soon changed to San Felipe de Salta In 1650 the city had around 500 inhabitants.
Within the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata is created the intendency of Salta del Tucumán. In 1774 San Ramón de La Nueva Orán is founded as a nexus between Salta and Tarija, the later added to the intendency in 1807. In 1783, due to the importance of the city, the capital of the intendency of Salta del Tucumán is moved from Tucumán to Salta.
After the battle of Salta in 1813 the territory was freed form Spain, but occasional attacks were still driven from the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1826. Gervasio de Posadas creates in 1814 the Salta Province, covering the current provinces of Salta, Jujuy, part of the South of Bolivia and the North of the Chile.
Due to some internal conflicts after the Argentine independence, Bolivia annexed Tarija in 1826. In 1834 Jujuy separates from Salta and becomes a province of its own. In 1900 Salta loses Yacuiba to Bolivia.
The National Government of Los Andes, constituted in 1902, and its capital San Antonio de Los Cobres became once again part of the Salta Province in 1943 as Los Andes Department and San Antonio de Los Cobres as its capital city.
Geography and climate
To the West, the Puna's arid high plains with salty lakes (Arizaro, Pocitos) has few inhabitants, and its main city is San Antonio de los Cobres.
High snowy Andean peaks (Acay, Cachi and Chañi) lower to the North-east and hold valleys such as Quebrada del Toro, Valles Calchaquíes and the Lerma Valley. This is the most densely inhabited area, and where the Salta city is found. The climate of the area is of hot summers (average of 23 °C with peaks of 40 °C) and cold winters with temperatures well below freezing point.
To the east, near the Gran Chaco area, the more humid subtropical climate is home to the Yungas jungle in the El Rey National Park.
Main rivers of the province are the Pilcomayo, Bermejo and the Juramento, which later becomes the Salado River.
Salta Province is located at a geological active region, and suffers from occasional earthquakes. Fairly destructive were the ones occurred in 1692 and 1948.
Agriculture and its derived industry are the main activity of the province. Tobacco, sugar cane and viticulture are the most important and produce most of the exports of the Country. Other crops mostly for local consumption are maize, beans, citrus, bananas, and tomatoes. The sugar cane is processed in plants in Salta before it's sent to the rest of Argentina and other countries. The plant in San Martín de Tabacal is the most important of them. The famous wines of the Valles Calchaquíes region near Cafayate are produced in numerous vineyards of diverse sizes (mainly Torrontés, Malbec and Cabernet Sauvignon).
Hydrocarbon extraction from the Tartagal, Aguas Blancas, Madrejones and Campo Durán centres is transported to Buenos Aires and Rosario by pipes. Campo Durán holds also a processing plant. Mining includes sulfur extraction at the La Casualidad mine, and uranium at Iruya, La Poma and San Carlos.
American breeds of cattle are raised only on the humid sub-tropical east, along with some sheep and goats.
The Salta Province is home to a number of natural, social and historic attractions.
The city of Salta "La Linda" ("The beautiful") is both an important tourist destination, and the centre point for visiting the rest of the province. The city holds different attractions; among them are her colonial houses and cathedral, and the Museo de Arqueología de Alta Montaña de Salta that holds the 3 frozen Inca mummies found at the 6,700 meters of the Llullaillaco volcano.
Also from Salta, the Tren a las nubes crosses canyons and cliffs before arriving to the 3,775 metres (12,500 feet) of San Antonio de los Cobres. The red-rock formations of the Valles Calchaquíes and the wine-town of Cafayate are the second most visited place in the province. Many visit the Cachi mountain and the villages (such as Payogasta) around it.
Throughout the province, trekking and rafting, climbing and bungee jumping are also practiced. There are 3 national parks in Salta: El Rey National Park in the Yungas jungle, Baritú National Park and Los Cardones National Park.
Información provista por http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salta_Province