Argentina - Provincia de Misiones

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Misiones is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamia region. It is surrounded by Paraguay to the northwest, Brazil to the north and east, and Corrientes Province of Argentina to the southwest. Its illiteracy rate is 8.6%.


* 1 History
* 2 Geography
* 3 Climate
* 4 Economy
* 5 Tourism


The province was originally populated by the Guarani culture. The first European to visit the region was Sebastian Cabot who, while navigating the Paraná River in December of 1527, found Apipé's falls. Misiones is still, to an extent, ethnically indigenous Guarani.

In 1541 Álvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca reached the Iguazú Falls.

In 17th century members of the Society of Jesus came to the zone. These missionaries began to build a string of Jesuit Reduccions. In a few years, they managed to create 30 villages, wherein the Guarani, who already were starting to practice agriculture, fully adopted a sedentary lifestyle.

In 1814, Gervasio Posadas, the director of United Provinces, declared Misiones annexed to Argentina's Corrientes (At this time Argentina was quasi-independent but still a nominally Spanish territory.) However Argentina did not exert de facto control over Misiones, which was claimed by several countries and effectively governed itself, so in 1830 military forces from Corrientes Province took control of Misiones.

In 1838, Paraguay occupied Misiones, because Paraguay claimed Misiones on the basis that the Misiones population was indigenous Guarani, the major ethnic group of Paraguay. In 1865, Paraguayan forces invaded Misiones again, in what became the War of the Triple Alliance. Following the peace agreement with Argentina eventually signed in 1876, defeated Paraguay gave up its claim to the Misiones territory.

Although Argentina had claimed Misiones since 1814, academics tend to interpret Argentine possession of Misiones as a result of this war. Bethell's account is that "the treaty of alliance [i.e. against Paraguay] contained secret clauses providing for the annexation of disputed territory in northern Paraguay by Brazil and regions in the east and west of Paraguay by Argentina... After a long and harrowing war (1865-70), Argentina prised from a prostrate Paraguay territory in Misiones." [Bethell, 'Argentina since Independence' , Cambridge University Press, 1993, pages 45-6]. Scobie's analysis is that "the political status of Misiones remained vague" and that Argentina gained the region "as a by-product of the Paraguayan war in the 1860's" [Scobie, 'Argentina' , Oxford University Press, 1964, pages 22-3].

After the War of the Triple Alliance, Paraguay was much impoverished, so Misiones benefitted economically from belonging to Argentina. Since then, Misiones has continued to benefit economically and has developed politically within Argentina. It has been successfully integrated into the Argentine state. Today, there is no controversy, either international or internal, surrounding ownership of the province. It retains a particularly strong regional identity. On December 10 of 1953 the "National Territory of Misiones" gained provincial status by the Law 14.294, and its constitution was approved on April 21 1958.


Misiones is the second smallest province after Tucumán.

The Misiones plateau includes a part of Brazil across the border. The rocks contain significant quantities of iron which forms a part of the soil, giving it a reddish color. At the center of the plateau rises the Sierra de Misiones, its highest peak, 843 m, near Bernardo de Irigoyen, in the Cerro Rincón.

The province is embraced by three big rivers: Paraná, Uruguay and Iguazú, native drains off of big regions with abundant rains.

The Iguassu Falls are waterfalls located on the border of Brazilian state of Paraná (in the Southern Region) and the Argentinian Province of Misiones.


The subtropical climate develops without dry station, which it converts to Misiones into one of the most humid provinces of the country. The predominant winds are those of the northwest, southeast and this one. The vegetation is the so called "Selva Misionera". Part of it has been transformed by the man to implant cultures or ranching. The original bioma is protected in Iguazú National Park.


The major contribution to the province's economy comes from the jungle, particularly tourism and logging. The principal exploited trees are the Paraná pine, Guatambú, Cedar, Petiribí, Incense, Cane water-pipe, Anchico, Eucalyptus and Gueycá. Another source of income is the cultivation of yerba mate, tea and, in minor amounts, tobacco, sugar cane, rice and coffee. Cattle production is rare.


The province is named after the Jesuit missions (reducciones), which were established in the area. Of the 15 reducciones established in Argentina, 11 were located in the present Misiones Province. Of these 11, 4 were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1984: San Ignacio Mini, Nuestra Señora de Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto, Santa María la Mayor.



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